Tuesday, July 11, 2017
Wikipedia: Chinese Assassination Corps
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Chinese Assassination Corps
Chinese Assassination Corps
China Assassination Corps
) was an
group, active in
during the final years of the
. One of the first organized
anarchist movements in China
, it aimed to overthrow the
and the Empire of China through the use of revolutionary terror.
In 1910, the left-wing
nationalist (and later
collaborator and President of the
Reorganized National Government of China
Second Sino-Japanese War
, who had been influenced by
while studying in
planned to assassinate
(father of the young
). The plan, which was to be carried out in April, failed as Wang and his
associates were arrested in
In response to the plot's failure, the Chinese Assassination Corps was formed later the same
year to carry on the imprisoned would-be assassins' mission. Founded in
, it had
about ten active members in the beginning, most of which were Tongmenghui activists
disillusioned with the tactic of revolutionary mass action. Instead, they turned to individual
propaganda of the deed
, in the form of assassination. This was deeply inspired
by roughly contemporary groups like the Russian
, a left-wing terrorist group
most well known for killing Tsar
in 1881, and the
nationalist organization which would later go on to trigger
World War I
in 1914. These first members included people
like Ch'en Chiung-ming, Kao Chien-fu, Xie Yingbo, and
Liu Shifu (1884–1915) especially would go on to become prominent within the Chinese
anarchist milieu. Having been radicalised while studying in Japan (much like Wang Jingwei),
the Tongmenghui member was involved in several assassinations before a 1907 attempt on
the life of a
military commander, Li Chun, cost him one of his hands and two
years in prison after his explosive device detonated by accident. He joined the Chinese
Assassination Corps right after his release in 1910. He would later go on to reject the tactic
of revolutionary terror, favouring instead grassroots organizing among the peasants and
workers. Associated with Shifu was another Corps member, Xie Yingbo, who would later
become a labor union leader and
In 1911 tensions in China grew to a breaking point. This was especially the case in on the
urbanized southern Chinese coast. For example, in April 1911, the
) broke out – and was quickly crushed. One of the commanders
central to putting down this revolt was the aforementioned Li Chun, who had previously been
volved in combating many revolutionary uprisings since 1907. He became a target of not
only the Chinese Assassination Corps, but another insurrectionist group as well. The
orps' designated assassin, Lin Kuan-tz'u, joined forces with the other assassin – Ch'en
Ching-yüeh – after realizing their common goal while tracking Li. On August 13, Lin attempted
e commander by throwing a home-made bomb at him as Li was making his way to his office.
The explosion wounded Li and killed several of his guards, who quickly gunned down the
bomb-thrower. A waiting Ch'en was soon arrested at a secondary location, and later
On 10 October 1911, the
broke out. Considered by some historians
to have been triggered at least partially by the Second Guangzhou Uprising, the revolt
would itself go on to serve as the catalyst to the
. The Revolution of 1911
first came to Guangdong on 25 October, when the new Tartar-General Feng-shan, who
had been named as a replacement for the recently assassinated Fu-ch'i, was assassinated
within minutes of arriving in the city. The deed was the work of a group of revolutionaries
centred on the Chinese Assassination Corps and carried out by two brothers, Li Ying-sheng
and Li P'ei-chi, both of whom escaped.
Boorman, Howard L.; Howard, Richard C., eds. (1970).
Biographical Dictionary of
New York City
: Columbia University Press. pp. 369–370.
Lee, Lily Xiao Hong; Stefanowska, A. D.; Wiles, Sue, eds. (1970).
of Chinese Women: The Twentieth Century, 1912–2000
New York City
: M.E. Sharpe.
Rhoads, Edward J. M. (1975).
China's Republican Revolution: The Case of
: Harvard University Press. pp. 196, 211 and 218.
Danver, Steven L. (2010).
Popular Controversies in World History: Investigating
History's Intriguing Questions
: ABC-CLIO. pp. 125 and 170.
Dirlik, Arif (1991).
Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution
: University of
California Press. p. 54.
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