Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Wikipedia: Chinese Assassination Corps


Chinese Assassination Corps

The Chinese Assassination Corps (or China Assassination CorpsChinese支那暗殺團) was an anarchist group, active in China during the final years of the Qing dynasty. One of the first organized anarchist movements in China and fiercely anti-Manchu, it aimed to overthrow the Aisin Gioro and the Empire of China through the use of revolutionary terror.


In 1910, the left-wing Tongmenghui nationalist (and later anti-communist pro-Japanese 
collaborator and President of the Reorganized National Government of China during the
 Second Sino-Japanese WarWang Jingwei, who had been influenced by Russian anarchism 
while studying in Japan,[1] planned to assassinate Prince-Regent Chun (father of the young
 Xuantong Emperor). The plan, which was to be carried out in April, failed as Wang and his
 associates were arrested in Beijing in March.[2]
In response to the plot's failure, the Chinese Assassination Corps was formed later the same 
year to carry on the imprisoned would-be assassins' mission. Founded in Hong Kong, it had
 about ten active members in the beginning, most of which were Tongmenghui activists
 disillusioned with the tactic of revolutionary mass action. Instead, they turned to individual
 action, the propaganda of the deed, in the form of assassination. This was deeply inspired
 by roughly contemporary groups like the Russian People's Will, a left-wing terrorist group 
most well known for killing Tsar Alexander II in 1881, and the Black Hand, a Serbian
 pan-Slavic nationalist organization which would later go on to trigger World War I by 
assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914. These first members included people 
like Ch'en Chiung-ming, Kao Chien-fu, Xie Yingbo, and Liu Shifu.[3][4]
Liu Shifu (1884–1915) especially would go on to become prominent within the Chinese 
anarchist milieu. Having been radicalised while studying in Japan (much like Wang Jingwei),
 the Tongmenghui member was involved in several assassinations before a 1907 attempt on 
the life of a Guangdong military commander, Li Chun, cost him one of his hands and two 
years in prison after his explosive device detonated by accident. He joined the Chinese 
Assassination Corps right after his release in 1910. He would later go on to reject the tactic
of revolutionary terror, favouring instead grassroots organizing among the peasants and
 workers. Associated with Shifu was another Corps member, Xie Yingbo, who would later 
become a labor union leader and anarcho-syndicalist.[5]
In 1911 tensions in China grew to a breaking point. This was especially the case in on the
urbanized southern Chinese coast. For example, in April 1911, the Second Guangzhou 
Uprising (led by Huang Xing) broke out – and was quickly crushed. One of the commanders
 central to putting down this revolt was the aforementioned Li Chun, who had previously been
volved in combating many revolutionary uprisings since 1907. He became a target of not
only the Chinese Assassination Corps, but another insurrectionist group as well. The 
orps' designated assassin, Lin Kuan-tz'u, joined forces with the other assassin – Ch'en 
Ching-yüeh – after realizing their common goal while tracking Li. On August 13, Lin attempted
e commander by throwing a home-made bomb at him as Li was making his way to his office. 
The explosion wounded Li and killed several of his guards, who quickly gunned down the
bomb-thrower. A waiting Ch'en was soon arrested at a secondary location, and later
On 10 October 1911, the Wuchang Uprising broke out. Considered by some historians
 to have been triggered at least partially by the Second Guangzhou Uprising, the revolt 
would itself go on to serve as the catalyst to the Xinhai Revolution. The Revolution of 1911
 first came to Guangdong on 25 October, when the new Tartar-General Feng-shan, who
had been named as a replacement for the recently assassinated Fu-ch'i, was assassinated 
within minutes of arriving in the city. The deed was the work of a group of revolutionaries
 centred on the Chinese Assassination Corps and carried out by two brothers, Li Ying-sheng 
and Li P'ei-chi, both of whom escaped.[3]


  1. ^ Boorman, Howard L.; Howard, Richard C., eds. (1970). Biographical Dictionary of 
  2. Republican ChinaNew York City: Columbia University Press. pp. 369–370. 
  3. ISBN 0231089554.
  4. ^ Lee, Lily Xiao Hong; Stefanowska, A. D.; Wiles, Sue, eds. (1970). Biographical Dictionary
  5.  of Chinese Women: The Twentieth Century, 1912–2000New York City: M.E. Sharpe.
  6.  p. 50. ISBN 0765607980.
  7. a b Rhoads, Edward J. M. (1975). China's Republican Revolution: The Case of 
  8. Kwangtung, 1895-1913Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 196, 211 and 218.
  9.  ISBN 0674119800.
  10. ^ Danver, Steven L. (2010). Popular Controversies in World History: Investigating 
  11. History's Intriguing QuestionsSanta Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 125 and 170. 
  12. ISBN 1598840789.
  13. ^ Dirlik, Arif (1991). Anarchism in the Chinese RevolutionBerkeley: University of 
  14. California Press. p. 54. ISBN 0520072979.

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